Biocoal Characterization as an Environmentally Friendly Alternative Energy Innovation Composite Variations of Gasified Char with Coconut Shell Charcoal

Aria Yopianita, Aida Syarif, Muhammad Yerizam, rusdianasari rusdiana sari


In accordance with the mandate of the Regulation of the Indonesian Minister of Energy and Mineral Resources for the use of cleaner coal through coal gasification projects, in the future the coal gasification industry will produce char as a by-product. This study aims to characterize coal gasification char using a prototype underground coal gasification (UCG) and the addition of coconut shell charcoal biomass as a raw material for making biobriquettes. By using coal as raw material from the Muara Tiga Besar Mine of PT Bukit Asam, five kinds of coal samples from different layers were obtained, which from the characterization results, both coal and char, did not have too significant deviations so that the research variables could be ignored. The results of the characterization of char from coal gasification results compared to the initial sample of coal showed an increase in calorific value, a decrease in sulfur content and a significant decrease in water content, so it can be concluded that char from coal gasification has good potential as a raw material for biobriquettes. By using char and coconut shell charcoal with the ratio of variations in the composition of char and coconut shell compositions is 100%:0%; 75%:25%; 50%:50%; 25%:75% and 0%:100% carried out the briquetting process. The results of the biobriquette characterization met the criteria of the Indonesian National Standard (SNI) 01-6235-2000 and Minister of Energy and Mineral Resources regulation No. 047 of 2006

Full Text:

Full Text PDF


K. K. Kuo, "Principles of combustion of tantalum-carbon mixtures", vol. 14, no. 4. 2005.

M. Trifiananto, “Updraft Coal Gasification Characterization with Varying Equivalence Ratio,” Institute Teknologi Sepuluh November, 2015.

Erwin, A. Syarif, and M. Yerizam, “Analysis of Downdraft Low Rank Coal Performance Gasification by Variations Coal to Syngas Products,” October 2021, pp. 1–7, 2022, doi: 10.24845/ijfac.v7.i1.01.

J. Lesmana, A. Hasan, and A. Syarief, “Syngas Underground Coal Gasification (UCG) Testing of Fracture Type Subbituminous Coal in Laboratory Scale,” Int. J. Res. Vocat. Stud., vol. 1, no. 2, 2021.

A. Syarif, A. Aswan, I. Rusnadi, A. A. Fadhulullah, and N. Azizah, “Effect of Air Flow and Filter Variation on Coal Gasification Process with The Downdraft System,” Kinetika, vol. 11, no. 01, pp. 36–44, 2020.

D. Vamvuka, “Gasification of Coal,” in Gasification of Coal, 2000, pp. 515–581.

S. S. Idris, M. I. Zailan, N. Azron, and N. Abd, “Sustainable Green Charcoal Briquette from Food Waste via Microwave Pyrolysis Technique : Influence of Type and Concentration of Binders on Chemical and Physical Characteristics,” Int. J. Renew. Energy Dev., vol. 10, no. 3, pp. 425–433, 2021, doi: 10.14710/ijred.2021.33101.

Sarmidi, M. Yerizam, and A. Syarif, “Syngas Characteristics from UCG Gasification Process with Lignite and Subbituminous Coal Types,” Int. J. Res. Vocat. Stud., vol. 1, no. 2, pp. 52–58, 2021.

P. Basu, Biomass gasification and pyrolysis Practical Design and Theory, vol. 5. Oxford: Elsevier Inc, 2010.

P. Hwangdee, C. Jansiri, S. Sudajan, and K. Laloon, “Physical Characteristics and Energy Content of Biomass Charcoal Powder,” Int. J. Renew. Energy Res., vol. 11, no. 1, pp. 158–169, 2021.

Undang Undang Republik Indonesia No 3 Tahun 2020, “Tentang Perubahan Atas Undang - Undang Nomor 4 Tahun 2009,” 2020.

Sudding and Jamaluddin, “The Processing Of Coconut Shell Based On Pyrolysis Technology To Produce Reneweable Energy Sources,” Int. Conf. Math. Sci. Technol. Educ. their Appl., no. October 2016, pp. 498–510, 2016.

J. Riaza, J. Gibbins, and H. Chalmers, “Ignition and combustion of single particles of coal and biomass,” Fuel, vol. 202, pp. 650–655, 2017, doi: 10.1016/j.fuel.2017.04.011.

V. Benedetti, F. Patuzzi, and M. Baratieri, “Gasification Char as a Potential Substitute of Activated Carbon in Adsorption Applications,” Energy Procedia, vol. 105, no. May, pp. 712–717, 2017, doi: 10.1016/j.egypro.2017.03.380.

M. Yerizam, F. . Faizal.M, M. Marsi, and N. Novia, “Characteristics of Composite Rice Straw and Coconut Shell as Biomass Energy Resources (Briquette)(Case study: Muara Telang Village, Banyuasin of South Sumatra),” Int. J. Adv. Sci. Eng. Inf. Technol., vol. 3, no. 3, p. 232, 2013, doi: 10.18517/ijaseit.3.3.326.

G. Amoako and P. Mensah-Amoah, “Determination of Calorific Values of Coconut Shells and Coconut Husks,” J. Mater. Sci. Res. Rev. , vol. 2, no. 2, pp. 1–7, 2018, doi: 10.9734/JMSRR/2019/45639.

M. Deb Mandal and S. Mandal, “Coconut (Cocos nucifera L.: Arecaceae): In health promotion and disease prevention,” Asian Pac. J. Trop. Med., vol. 4, no. 3, pp. 241–247, 2011, doi: 10.1016/S1995-7645(11)60078-3.

W. A. Rizal et al., “Chemical composition of liquid smoke from coconut shell waste produced by SME in Rongkop Gunungkidul,” IOP Conf. Ser. Earth Environ. Sci., vol. 462, no. 1, 2020, doi: 10.1088/1755-1315/462/1/012057.

O. J. Lawal, T. A. Atanda, S. O. Ayanleye, and E. A. Iyiola, “Production of Biomass Briquettes Using Coconut Husk and Male Inflorescence of Elaeis guineensis,” J. Energy Res. Rev., no. July, pp. 1–9, 2019, doi: 10.9734/jenrr/2019/v3i230093.

Menteri Energi Dan Sumber Daya Mineral, “Permen ESDM No 047 Tahun 2006,” 2006.

Standar Nasional Indonesia, SNI 01-6235-2000

A. Zulatama, A. Syarif, and M. Yerizam, “Effect of Oxygen Flow Rate on Combustion Time and Temperature of Underground Coal Gasification,” Int. J. Res. Vocat. Stud., vol. 1, no. 2, pp. 27–33, 2021, doi: 10.53893/ijrvocas.v1i2.27.

Sunardi, Djuanda, and M. A. S. Mandra, “Characteristics of charcoal briquettes from agricultural waste with compaction pressure and particle size variation as alternative fuel,” Int. Energy J., vol. 19, no. 3, pp. 139–147, 2019.

T. M. Gantina, “The Effect of Adding Coconut Shell Charcoal to Increasing the Heating Value and Burning Process of Bio-Coal Briquettes,” J. Tek. Energi, vol. 9, no. November, pp. 31–36, 2019.


  • There are currently no refbacks.


Editorial Office:

Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Mathematics and Natural Sciences Universitas Sriwijaya
Jl. Palembang-Prabumulih Km.32 Indralaya 30662
Phone: +62-711-580269


Creative Commons License
IJFAC by Department of Chemistry Sriwijaya University is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike 4.0 International License