Synthesis of Epoxide as Intermediate Compounds for Biolubricant Production from Crude Palm Oil

R. Arie Hartawan, Muhammad Said, Muhammad Faizal, Juni Prianto, Miratna Juwita, Nabila Aprianti

Abstract


The use of biolubricant must be encouraged to reduce environmental pollution from non-biodegradable lubricants by utilizing crude palm oil. This study aims to synthesize epoxide compounds from crude palm oil (CPO) as intermediate compounds to produce Biolubricant and determine the kinetic reaction and the enthalpy of the epoxide reaction. The process of synthesizing epoxide was carried out in a stirred reactor. The epoxidation reaction occurred at 60, 70, and 80 °C for 30 – 180 min with 30 min intervals using 1, 2, and 3% H2SO4 as catalysts. The highest conversion was obtained at a reaction temperature of 70 °C at 90 min using 2% H2SO4 of 87.59%. The characteristics of the epoxide compound produced have a density of 0.951 g/cm3, a kinematic viscosity of 44.388 CSt, an acid number of 4.32 mg NaOH/g oil, and oxirane number of 5.731 g/cm3. The reaction kinetic constant and enthalpy were 0.0104 mol/mL min and 10494.762 J/mol. The synthesized epoxide from crude palm oil was proven to be a suitable intermediate compound for biolubricant production.

Full Text:

Full Text PDF

References


D. Pochi et al., “Test rig and method for comparative evaluation of conventional and bio‐based hydraulic fluids and lubricants for agricultural transmissions,” Sustain., vol. 12, no. 20, pp. 1–22, 2020, doi: 10.3390/su12208564.

M. Dehghani Soufi, B. Ghobadian, M. Atashgaran, S. M. Mousavi, and G. Najafi, “Biolubricant production from edible and novel indigenous vegetable oils: mainstream methodology, and prospects and challenges in Iran,” Biofuels, Bioprod. Biorefining, vol. 13, no. 3, pp. 838–849, 2019, doi: 10.1002/bbb.1953.

S. H. Hamdan, W. W. F. Chong, J. H. Ng, C. T. Chong, and H. Zhang, “Nano-tribological characterisation of palm oil-based trimethylolpropane ester for application as boundary lubricant,” Tribol. Int., vol. 127, no. February, pp. 1–9, 2018, doi: 10.1016/j.triboint.2018.05.036.

Y. Singh, A. Farooq, A. Raza, M. A. Mahmood, and S. Jain, “Sustainability of a non-edible vegetable oil based bio-lubricant for automotive applications: A review,” Process Saf. Environ. Prot., vol. 111, pp. 701–713, 2017, doi: 10.1016/j.psep.2017.08.041.

B. F. Sihombing and E. Lisdiyono, “Governance and the Role of Legal Aspects in the Fuel Pricing in Indonesia,” Int. J. Energy Econ. Policy, vol. 8, no. 3, pp. 168–176, 2018.

C. P. do Valle et al., “Chemical modification of Tilapia oil for biolubricant applications,” J. Clean. Prod., vol. 191, pp. 158–166, 2018, doi: 10.1016/j.jclepro.2018.04.062.

A. Z. Syahir et al., “A review on bio-based lubricants and their applications,” J. Clean. Prod., vol. 168, pp. 997–1016, 2017, doi: 10.1016/j.jclepro.2017.09.106.

C. Murru, R. Badía-Laíño, and M. E. Díaz-García, “Oxidative Stability of Vegetal Oil-Based Lubricants,” ACS Sustain. Chem. Eng., vol. 9, no. 4, pp. 1459–1476, 2021, doi: 10.1021/acssuschemeng.0c06988.

A. S. Martin-Rubio, P. Sopelana, and M. D. Guillén, “Assessment of soybean oil oxidative stability from rapid analysis of its minor component profile,” Molecules, vol. 25, no. 20, 2020, doi: 10.3390/molecules25204860.

N. M. Nor, D. Derawi, and J. Salimon, “The optimization of RBD palm oil epoxidation process using D-optimal design,” Sains Malaysiana, vol. 47, no. 7, pp. 1359–1367, 2018, doi: 10.17576/jsm-2018-4707-02.

N. Aprianti, M. Faizal, M. Said, and S. Nasir, “Valorization of palm empty fruit bunch waste for syngas production through gasification,” J. Ecol. Eng., vol. 21, no. 7, pp. 17–26, 2020.

N. Aprianti, M. Faizal, M. Said, and S. Nasir, “Catalytic gasification of oil palm empty fruit bunch by using Indonesian bentonite as the catalyst,” J. Appl. Eng. Sci., pp. 1–10, 2021, doi: 10.5937/jaes0-28781.

N. Mohd Zin, S. K. Jamaludin, H. Hassan, Z. Wan, A. K. Nur Fadzeelah, and S. Mohd Sukri, “Effect of Oxygen Carrier and Reaction Temperature in Enhancing the Epoxy Ring Stability in the Epoxidation of Palm Kernel Oil,” IOP Conf. Ser. Mater. Sci. Eng., vol. 864, no. 1, 2020, doi: 10.1088/1757-899X/864/1/012024.

M. Said, H. Bobbie Rizkie Mandhala, M. A. Defitra, F. Sandi, and R. Vernando, “Synthesis of epoxide and polyol compounds as intermediates for biolubricant from soybean oil,” Int. J. Adv. Sci. Eng. Inf. Technol., vol. 10, no. 1, pp. 374–380, 2020, doi: 10.18517/ijaseit.10.1.10463.

T. K. K. S. Pathmasiri, G. I. P. Perera, and R. Gallage, “Investigation of palm-castor oil blends as base stocks of bio-lubricants for industrial applications,” Energy Sources, Part A Recover. Util. Environ. Eff., vol. 0, no. 0, pp. 1–21, 2019, doi: 10.1080/15567036.2019.1643425.

M. Musik and E. Milchert, “Selective epoxidation of sesame oil with peracetic acid,” Mol. Catal., vol. 433, pp. 170–174, 2017, doi: 10.1016/j.mcat.2017.02.012.

J. C. de Haro, I. Izarra, J. F. Rodríguez, Á. Pérez, and M. Carmona, “Modelling the epoxidation reaction of grape seed oil by peracetic acid,” J. Clean. Prod., vol. 138, pp. 70–76, 2016, doi: 10.1016/j.jclepro.2016.05.015.

E. Dehonor Márquez, J. F. Nieto Alarcón, E. Vigueras Santiago, and S. Hernández López, “Effective and Fast Epoxidation Reaction of Linseed Oil Using 50 wt% Hydrogen Peroxyde,” Am. J. Chem., vol. 8, no. 5, pp. 99–106, 2018, doi: 10.5923/j.chemistry.20180805.01.

M. Gong et al., “Using molecular oxygen and Fe-N/C heterogeneous catalysts to achieve Mukaiyama epoxidations via in situ produced organic peroxy acids and acylperoxy radicals,” Catal. Sci. Technol., 2022, doi: 10.1039/d2cy00356b.

W. Wang, F. Li, and H. Wang, “Study of light wavelength on the oxidative stability of Jatropha biodiesel,” Fuel, vol. 292, no. August 2020, p. 120230, 2021, doi: 10.1016/j.fuel.2021.120230.

Y. Mekonnen, “Epoxidation of Podocarpus Falcatus Oil by Sulphuric Acid Catalyst: Process Optimization and Physio-chemical Characterization,” Am. J. Chem. Eng., vol. 9, no. 4, pp. 84–90, 2021, doi: 10.11648/j.ajche.20210904.12.

E. Santacesaria, R. Turco, V. Russo, R. Tesser, and M. Di, “Soybean oil epoxidation: Kinetics of the epoxide ring opening reactions,” Processes, vol. 8, no. 9, 2020, doi: 10.3390/PR8091134.

L. Ifa, T. Syarif, Z. Sabara, N. Nurjannah, M. Munira, and F. Aryani, “Study on the Kinetics of Epoxidation Reaction of RBD Palm Olein,” IOP Conf. Ser. Earth Environ. Sci., vol. 175, no. 1, 2018, doi: 10.1088/1755-1315/175/1/012035.

A. F. Aguilera et al., “Epoxidation of Fatty Acids and Vegetable Oils Assisted by Microwaves Catalyzed by a Cation Exchange Resin,” Ind. Eng. Chem. Res., vol. 57, no. 11, pp. 3876–3886, 2018, doi: 10.1021/acs.iecr.7b05293.

M. J. Jalil, A. F. M. Yamin, S. H. Chang, I. S. Azmi, N. Morad, and A. Hadi, “Selective epoxidation of crude oleic acid-palm oil with in situ generated performic acid,” Int. J. Eng. Technol., vol. 7, no. 4, pp. 152–155, 2018, doi: 10.14419/ijet.v7i4.40.24423.

M. C. Hernández-Cruz et al., “Optimization and characterization of in situ epoxidation of chicken fat with peracetic acid,” Fuel, vol. 285, no. September 2020, 2021, doi: 10.1016/j.fuel.2020.119127.

M. J. Jalil, N. Mohamed, S. K. Jamaludin, A. M. Som, and A. R. Mohamad Daud, “Epoxidation of palm kernel oil-based crude oleic acid,” Adv. Mater. Res., vol. 906, no. April, pp. 125–130, 2014, doi: 10.4028/www.scientific.net/amr.906.125.


Refbacks

  • There are currently no refbacks.


 

Editorial Office:

Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Mathematics and Natural Sciences Universitas Sriwijaya
Jl. Palembang-Prabumulih Km.32 Indralaya 30662
Phone: +62-711-580269

 

Creative Commons License
IJFAC by Department of Chemistry Sriwijaya University is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike 4.0 International License