Features of Vespa affinis Nest Based on X-ray Diffraction, Spectroscopic, and Surface Morphological Studies

Salprima Yudha S, Octakireina Liesaini Daefisal, Swadexi Istiqphara, Anisa Ulya Darajat


The main focus of this research is to ascertain the X-ray diffraction (XRD) pattern, Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopic pattern, and surface morphology of a hornet (Vespa affinis) nest. The optical microscopic (OM) analysis demonstrated that the nest presented an irregular formation of partition materials. This was confirmed via scanning electron microscopy (SEM), which revealed the presence of a unique form with a honeycomb-like pattern. Meanwhile, the materials largely consisted of carbon and oxygen elements, as was revealed by the energy dispersive X-ray (EDX) analysis, while the XRD analysis indicated that the nest was composed of amorphous materials of cellulose and lignin. Finally, the (FTIR) spectroscopy analysis revealed the presence of a number of peaks, which indicated that the material also consisted of a mixture of cellulose, hemicellulose, and lignin materials. It is envisaged that these results would widen the possibilities of fundamental scientific research on forest products, particularly the use of the V. affinis nest for further biological and chemical research

Full Text:

Full Text PDF


P. Ullah, A. Chowdhury, I. T. Isha, S. Mahmood, F. R. Chowdhury, M. Z.eesan-ul-Abir, A. Manna and M.I. Patwary, “Wasp stings (Vespa affinis) induced acute kidney injury following rhabdomyolysis in a 25-year-old woman,” Journal of Emergency Practice and Trauma, vol. 2. no.2, pp. 55 – 57, 2016.

K. Kularatne, T. Kannangare, A. Jayasena, A. Jayasekera, R. Waduge, K. Weerakoon and S. A. M. Kularatne, “Fatal acute pulmonary oedema and acute renal failure following multiple wasp/hornet (Vespa affinis) stings in Sri Lanka: two case reports,” Journal of Medical Case Reports, vol. 8, pp. 188, 2014.

Neha, S. R. Ravikiran, S. Manya, K. Baliga and K. Bhat, “Acute Liver injury, rhabdomyolysis and acute renal failure in a toddler due to multiple stings by Vespa affinis,” Journal of Clinical and Diagnostic Research, vol. 13 no.2, pp. SD01– SD03, 2019.

S. Sukprasert, P. Rungsa, N. Uawonggu, P. Incamnoi, S. Thammasirirak, J. Daduang and S. Daduang, “Purification and structural characteri-sation of phospholipase A1 (Vespapase, Ves a 1) from Thai banded tiger wasp (Vespa affinis) venom,” Toxicon, vol. 61, pp. 151–164, 2013.

W. Teajaroen, S. Phimwapi, J. Daduang, S. Klaynongsruang, V. Tipmanee and S. Daduang, “A role of newly found auxiliary site in phospholipase A1 from Thai banded tiger wasp (Vespa affinis) in its enzymatic enhancement: in silico homology modeling and molecular dynamics insights,” Toxins, vol. 12, no. 8, pp. 510, 2020.

L. Mozhui, L. N. Kakati, P. Kiewhuo and S. Changkija, “Traditional knowledge of the utilization of edible insects in Nagaland, North-East India,” Foods, vol. 9, pp. 852, 2020.

P. Dutta, T. Dey, P. Manna and J. Kalita, “Antioxidant potential of Vespa affinis L., a traditional edible insect species of North East India,” PLoS ONE, vol. 11, no. 5, pp. e0156107, 2016.

H. Okuyama, S. J. Martin and J.-I. Takahashi, “Complete mitochondrial DNA sequence of the tropical hornet Vespa affinis (Insecta, Hymenoptera), Mitochondrial DNA Part B: Resources, vol. 2, no. 2, pp. 776–777, 2017, https://doi.org/10.1080/23802359.2017.1398622

P. Gunasekara, S. M. Handunnetti, S. Premawansa, P. Kaluarachchi, C. Karunatilake, I. P. Ratnayake, R. K. S. Dias, G. A. S. Premakumara, W. M. D. K. Dasanayake, U. L. Seneviratne and R. de Silva, “Diagnosis of Vespa affinis venom allergy: use of immunochemical methods and a passive basophil activation test,” Allergy Asthma & Clinical Immunology, vol. 15, pp. 80, 2019, https://doi.org/10.1186/s13223-019-0394-6

F. R. Chowdhury, M. S. Bari, A. M. Shafi, A. M. Ruhan, M. E. Hossain, S. Chowdhury and M. A. Hafiz, “Acute kidney injury following rhabdomyolysis due to multiple wasp stings (Vespa affinis),” Asia Pacific Journal of Medical Toxicology, vol. 3, no. 1, pp. 41–43, 2014.

E. E. Oghenesuvwe and C. Paul, “Edible insects bio-actives as anti-oxidants: current status and perspectives,” Journal of Complementary Medicine Research, vol. 10, no. 2, pp. 89–102, 2019.

P. A. Hasan, T. Atmowidi and S. Kahono, “Diversity, foraging behaviour, and effectiveness of insect pollinators on cucumber plants (Cucumis sativus Linn.),” Indonesian Journal of Entomology, vol. 14, no. 1, pp. 1–9, 2017.

E. Schmolz, N. Bruders, R. Daum, I. Lamprecht, “Thermoanalytical investigations on paper covers of social wasps,” Thermochimica Acta, vol. 361, pp. 121–129, 2009.

Z. Man, N. Muhammad, A. Sarwono, M. A. Bustam, M. V. Kumar and S. Rafiq, “Preparation of cellulose nanocrystals using an ionic liquid,” Journal of Polymers and Environmental, vol. 19, pp. 726–731, 2011.

N. D. Vu, H. T. Tran, N. D. Bui, C. D. Vu and H. V. Nguyen, “Lignin and cellulose extraction from vietnam’s rice straw using ultrasound-assisted alkaline treatment method,” International. Journal of. Polymer Science, 2017.

M. T. F. Teodoro, F. de S. Dias, D. G. da Silva, M. A. Bezerra, A. F. Dantas, L. S. G. Teixeira and A. L. C. Pereira, “Determination of copper total and speciation in food samples by flame atomic absorption spectrometry in association with solid-phase extraction with bamboo (Bambusa vulgaris) fiber loaded with bathocuproine,” Microchemical Journal, vol. 132, pp. 351–1357, 2017.

J. P. de Oliveira, G. P. Bruni, K. O. Lima, S. L. M. E. Halal, G. S. da Rosa, A. R. G. Dias and E. da R. Zavareze, “Cellulose fibers extracted from rice and oat husks and their application in hydrogel,” Food chemistry, vol. 221, pp. 153–160, 2017.

X.-F. Sun, R.-C. Sun, R.-C., Y. Su and J.-X. Sun, “Comparative study of crude and purifed cellulose from wheat straw,” Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry, vol. 52, pp. 839–847, 2004.

Q. He, Q. Wang, H. Zhou, D. Ren, Y. He, H. Cong and L. Wu, “Highly crystalline cellulose from brown seaweed Saccharina japonica: isolation, characterization and microcrystallization” Cellulose, vol 25, pp. 5523–5533, 2018.

S. M. Rosa, N. Rehman, M. I. G. de Miranda, S. M. Nachtigall and C. I. Bica, “Chlorine-free extraction of cellulose from rice husk and whisker isolation,” Carbohydrate Polymers, vol. 87, pp. 1131–1138, 2012.

J. I. Morán, V. A. Alvarez, V. P. Cyras and A. Vázquez, “Extraction of cellulose and preparation of nanocellulose from sisal fibers,” Cellulose, vol. 15, pp. 149–159, 2008.

L. Szcześniak, A. Rachocki and J. Tritt-Goc, “Glass transition temperature and thermal decomposition of cellulose powder,” Cellulose, vol. 15, pp. 445–451, 2008.

A. M. R. Galletti, A. D’Alessio, D. Licursi, C. Antonetti, G. Valentini, A. Galia and N. N. D. Nasso, “Midinfrared FT-IR as a tool for monitoring herbaceous biomass composition and its conversion to furfural,” Journal of Spectroscopy, 2015.

X. Sun, F. Xu, R. Sun, P. Fowler and M. Baird, “Characteristics of degraded cellulose obtained from steam-exploded wheat straw,” Carbohydrate research, vol. 340, pp. 97–106, 2005.

A.K. Gupta, S. Mohanty and S. K. Nayak, “Preparation and characterization of lignin nanofibre by electrospinnig technique,” International. Journal of Scientific Engineering and Applied Science, vol. 1, no. 3, pp. 184–90, 2015.


  • There are currently no refbacks.


Editorial Office:

Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Mathematics and Natural Sciences Universitas Sriwijaya
Jl. Palembang-Prabumulih Km.32 Indralaya 30662
Phone: +62-711-580269


Creative Commons License
IJFAC by Department of Chemistry Sriwijaya University is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike 4.0 International License