Liquid Soap Production from Catfish (Pangasius hypophthalmus) Fat Waste

Nabila Aprianti, Siti Nurhayati, Rosdiana Moeksin

Abstract


Catfish (Pangasius hypophthalmus) fat is a waste that has not been used optimally, especially in the use of soap. This study aimed to determine the effect of operating conditions are temperature, reaction time, and the ratio of volume between catfish oil and KOH. Soap can be formed by saponification reaction with strong alkali by hydrolyzing catfish oil with variations in the volume ratio of reactants (1:2, 1:3 and 1:4), temperature (75 °C and 95 °C) and reaction time (45 minutes and 75 minutes) with a constant stirring speed of 300 rpm. In the variation of the volume ratio of reactants, temperature and reaction time carried out in this study, a good liquid soap obtained is the volume ratio of reactants 1:3, temperature 75 °C and reaction time 45 minutes with pH 9.3 and free fatty acid 2.27%. The soap products produced have met SNI No. 06-4085-1996.

Full Text:

Full Text PDF

References


S. Shabanikakroodi, A. Christianus, C. P. Tan, Y. B. Che Man, and F. Ehteshami, “Refined oil production from patin catfish (Pangasianodon hypophthalmus) by-products,” Iran. J. Fish. Sci., vol. 14, no. 2, pp. 457–466, 2015.

G. P. Maniam, N. Hindryawati, I. Nurfitri, I. S. A. Manaf, N. Ramachandran, and M. H. A. Rahim, “Utilization of waste fat from catfish (Pangasius) in methyl esters preparation using CaO derived from waste marine barnacle and bivalve clam as solid catalysts,” J. Taiwan Inst. Chem. Eng., vol. 49, pp. 58–66, 2015.

K. Kara, F. Ouanji, E. M. Lotfi, M. El Mahi, M. Kacimi, and M. Ziyad, “Biodiesel production from waste fish oil with high free fatty acid content from Moroccan fish-processing industries,” Egypt. J. Pet., vol. 27, no. 2, pp. 249–255, 2018.

P. K. Binsi, G. Ninan, A. A. Zynudheen, R. Neethu, V. Ronda, and C. N. Ravishankar, “Compositional and chill storage characteristics of microwaveblanched sutchi catfish (Pangasianodon hypophthalmus) fillets,” Int. J. Food Sci. Technol., vol. 49, pp. 364–372, 2014.

M. Maghami, S. M. Sadrameli, and B. Ghobadian, “Production of biodiesel from fishmeal plant waste oil using ultrasonic and conventional methods,” Appl. Therm. Eng., vol. 75, pp. 575–579, 2015.

K. Ruckmani, R. Krishnamoorthy, S. Samuel, and H. L. J. Kumari, “Formulation of herbal bath soap from vitex negundo leaf extract,” J. Chem. Pharm. Sci. JCHPS Spec. Issue, vol. 2, no. 2, pp. 974–2115, 2014.

S. Félix, J. Araújo, A. M. Pires, and A. C. Sousa, “Soap production: A green prospective,” Waste Manag., vol. 66, pp. 190–195, 2017.

G. Burleson, K. Sharp, B. Ruder, B. Goodwin, and B. Butcher, “Soap-making process improvement: Including social, cultural and resource constraints in the engineering design process,” Int. J. Serv. Learn. Eng. Humanit. Eng. Soc. Entrep., vol. 12, no. 2, pp. 81–102, 2017.

W. M. A. N. K. Wijetunge and B. G. K. Perera, “Preparation of liquid medicinal soap products using Adhatoda vasica (Adhatoda) leaf extracts,” Int. J. Multidiscip. Stud., vol. 2, no. 2, 2015.

E. W. I. Hajar and S. Mufidah, “Penurunan asam lemak bebas pada minyak goreng bekas menggunakan ampas tebu untuk pembuatan sabun,” J. Integr. Proses, vol. 6, no. 1, pp. 22–27, 2016.

S. Melia, A. Sandra, A. Trisman, H. Purwanto, and E. Purwati, “Addition of Weissella paramesenteroides as probiotic in liquid soap from abdominal Fat cattle,” Res. J. Pharm. , Biol. Chem. Sci., vol. 8, no. 1, pp. 1145–1152, 2017.

N. P. Ningrum and M. A. I. Kusuma, “Pemanfaatan Minyak Goreng Bekas dan Abu Kulit Buah Kapuk Randu (Soda qie) sebagai Bahan Pembuatan Sabun Mandi Organik berbasis Teknologi Ramah Lingkungan,” Teknol. Kim. dan Ind., vol. 2, no. 2, pp. 275–285, 2013.

S. A. Zauro, M. T. Abdullahi, A. Aliyu, A. Muhammad, I. Abubakar, and Y. M. Sani, “Production and analysis of soap using locally available raw-materials,” Appl. Chem., vol. 96, no. 7, pp. 41479–41483, 2016.

T. Anggraini, S. Didi Ismanto, and D. Dahlia, “The making of transparent soap from green tea extract,” Int. J. Adv. Sci. Eng. Inf. Technol., vol. 5, no. 4, pp. 349–356, 2016.

F. A. Atiku, I. M. Fakai, A. A. Wara, A. U. Birnin-Yauri, and M. A. Musa, “Production of soap using locally available alkaline extract from millet stalk: a study on physical and chemical properties of soap,” Int. J. Adv. Res. Chem. Sci., vol. 1, no. 7, pp. 1–7, 2014.




DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.24845/ijfac.v4.i2.77

Refbacks

  • There are currently no refbacks.


 

Editorial Office:

Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Mathematics and Natural Sciences Universitas Sriwijaya
Jl. Palembang-Prabumulih Km.32 Indralaya 30662
Phone: +62-711-580269

 

Creative Commons License
IJFAC by Department of Chemistry Sriwijaya University is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike 4.0 International License