Synthesis and Characterization of ZSM-5 Catalyst for Catalytic Pyrolysis of Empty Fruit Bunches

Lutfia Rahmiyati, Susila Arita, Leily Nurul Komariah, Nazarudin Nazarudin, Oki Alfernando

Abstract


ZSM-5 is known as a heterogeneous catalyst in the process of petroleum cracking. Zeolite has narrow pores so it needs synthesis to form mesopore so that reactant molecules can enter the active site in ZSM-5 mesopore. In this study, mesopore formation was carried out by adding Si/Al components with a ratio of 20 derived from tetraethyl orthosilicate, aluminum isopropoxide and TPAOH template with hydrothermal process. The resulting ZSM-5 was characterized using x-ray diffraction, scanning and electron microscopy (SEM). The XRD characterization results showed that the ZSM-5 synthesized to form mesopore was seen from a fairly high peak intensity in the range at 2-theta were 8.11, 9.01°; 23.27°; 23.49°; and 24.13°. The results of this study already have the same structure as the commercial ZSM-5. Characterization of SEM-EDS showed that Si-Al and Na elements in ZSM-5 were 96.43%, 3.56% and 0% wt, respectively. With a magnification of 20000x, this cluster is quite homogeneous even though the crystallization formed is not well aggregated. This ZSM-5 catalyst will be applied to the process of biomass into bio-oil.


Full Text:

Full Text PDF

References


A.H. Tchapda and S.V. Pisupati. “A Review of Thermal Co-Conversion of Coal and Biomass/Waste.” Energies, vol. 7, pp. 1098-1148, Feb. 2014.

A.P.N. Nugroho, D. Fitriyanto, A. Roesyadi. “Pembuatan Biofuel dari Minyak Kelapa Sawit Melalui Proses Hydrocracking dengan Katalis NiMg/γ-Al2O3.” J. Tek. Pomits, vol. 3, ISSN: 2337-3539, Sept. 2014.

W. Widayat, A.R. Wicaksono, L.H. Firdaus, N. Okvitarini. “Synthesis H-Zeolite catalyst by impregnation KI/KIO3 and performance test catalyst for biodiesel production”. in IOP Conference Series: Materials Science and Engineering, 2016, vol. 107, 012044.

R. Vinodh et al., “Catalytic Conversion on Zeolites: Synthesis and Characterization,” Int. J. u-and e-Service, vol. 9, no. 5, pp. 383–394, 2016.

B. Vogel, C. Schneider, E. Klemm, “The Synthesis of Cresol from Toluene and N2O on H[Al]ZSM-5: Minimizing the Product Diffusion Limitation by the Use of Small Crystals.” Catal. Lett., vol. 79, pp. 107- 112, Apr. 2002.

T. Biligetu, Y. Wang, T. Nishitoba, R. Otomo, S. Park, H. Mochizuki, J.N. Kondo, T. Tatsumi, T. Yoko. “Al Distribution and Catalytic Performance of ZSM-5 Zeolites Synthesized with Various Alcohols.” J. Catal., vol. 353, pp. 1-10, Sept. 2017

A.A. Hartati, A.N. Widati, A. Kristanti, P. Purwaningsih, A. Alfiani. “Organic template free synthesis of ZSM-5 from calcinated Indonesian kaolin.” in AIP Conference Proceedings, 2017, vol. 1888, pp. 020024-1 - 020024-6.

H. Zhu, Z. Liu, D. Kong, Y. Wang, X. Yuan, Z. Xie. “Synthesis of ZSM-5 with Intracrystal or Intercrystal Mesopores by Polyvinyl Butyral Templating Method.” J. Colloid Interface Sci., vol. 331, pp. 432 – 438, Mar. 2009.

M.H. Zhu, Z.H. Lu, I. Kumakiri, K. Tanaka, X.S. Chen, H. Kita. “Preparation and Characterization of High Water Perm-selectivity ZSM-5 Membrane Without Organic Template.” J. Membr. Sci., vol. 415 – 416, pp. 57 – 65, Oct. 2012.

J. Ding, H. Liu, P. Yuan, G. Shi, X. Bao. “Catalytic Properties of a Hierarchical Zeolite Synthesized from a Natural Aluminosilicate Mineral without the Use of a Secondary Mesoscale Template.” ChemCatChem, vol. 5, pp. 1–13, Aug. 2013.

E. Mohiuddin, Y.M. Isa, M.M. Mdleleni, N. Sincadu, D. Key, T. Tshabalala. “Synthesis of ZSM-5 From Impure and Beneficiated Grahamstown kaolin: Effect of Kaolinite Content, Crystallization Temperatures and Time.” Appl. Clay Sci., vol. 119, pp. 213–22, Jan. 2016.

I. Ali, A. Hassan, S. Shabaan, K. El-Nasser. “Synthesis and Characterization of Composite Catalysts Cr/ZSM-5 and Their Effects Toward Photocatalytic Degradation of P-nitrophenol.” Arabian J. Chem., vol. 10, pp. S2106–S2114, May. 2017.

T. Wu, S. Chen, G. Yuan, Y. Cao, K. Su. “Enhanced Catalytic Performance in Butylene Cracking by Hierarchical Surface Silicon-Rich ZSM- 5.” Fuel Process. Technol., vol. 167, pp. 162–170, Dec. 2017

Z. Xue, T. Zhang, J. Ma, H. Miao, W. Fan, Y. Zhang, R. Li. “Accessibility and Catalysis of Acidic Sites in Hierarchical ZSM-5 Prepared by Silanization.” Micropor Mesopor Mater, vol. 151, pp. 271–276, Mar. 2012.

Q. Liu et al., “Enhanced Catalytic Performance for Light-Olefins Production from Chloromethane over Hierarchical Porous ZSM-5 Zeolite Synthesized by a Growth-Inhibition Strategy.” Appl. Surf. Sci., vol. 435, pp. 945–952, Mar. 2018.

X. Niu et al., “Influence of Crystal Size on The Catalytic Performance of H-ZSM-5 and Zn/H-ZSM-5 in The Conversion of Methanol to Aromatics.” Fuel Process. Technol., vol. 157, pp. 99–107, Mar. 2017

Nazarudin. “Catalytic Cracking of Plastic Waste Using Nanoporous materials.” Doctor of Philosophy, University College London, London, 2012.

W. Song, R.E. Justice, C.A. Jones, V.H. Grassian, S.C. Larsen. “Synthesis, Characterization, and Adsorption Properties of Nanocrystalline ZSM-5.” Langmuir, vol. 20, pp. 8301-8306, June. 2004.

Y.U. Dao-ke, F.U. Mei-li, Y. Ya-hui, S. Yi-bing, C. Jia-yang, F. Yi-wen. “One-step Synthesis of Hierarchical-Structured ZSM-5 Zeolite.” J. Fuel Chem. Technol., vol. 44, pp. 1363-69, Nov. 2016

C.S. Cundy, M.S. Henty, R.J. Plaisted. “Investigation of N, TPA-ZSM-5 Zeolite Synthesis by Chemical Methods.” Zeolites, vol. 15, pp. 342-345, May. 1995

R.M. Barrer. “Hydrothermal Chemistry of Zeolites.” Academic Press, London. 1982.

F. Pan, X. Lu, Y. Wang, S. Chen, T. Wang, Y. Yan. “Organic Template free Synthesis of ZSM-5 Zeolite from Coal-Series Kaolinite.” Mater. Lett., vol. 115, pp. 5–8, Jan. 2014.

M.M.J. Treacy and J.B. Higgins. “Collection of Simulated XRD Powder Patterns for Zeolites.” in MFI Calcined ZSM-5, 4th ed., Amsterdam: Elsevier, 2001, pp. 17.




DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.24845/ijfac.v4.i2.72

Refbacks

  • There are currently no refbacks.


 

Editorial Office:

Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Mathematics and Natural Sciences Universitas Sriwijaya
Jl. Palembang-Prabumulih Km.32 Indralaya 30662
Phone: +62-711-580269

 

Creative Commons License
IJFAC by Department of Chemistry Sriwijaya University is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike 4.0 International License